and Planning”, in: Fill, Alwin, Hermine Penz, & W. Language planning refers to deliberate efforts to Rubin, Joan. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language_planning. for the guidance of writers and speakers in a speech community. and Intercommunication from the perspective of 'complexity'", Economics or dialect In the third section, on language policy and planning, a historical sketch of language planning from laws enacted, revised and policies implemented is given. planning, Uppsala. Contributions to the sociology of language n° 31, words (see linguistic Status planning is institutional and administrative in that its work results in the prescribed official standing of languages as well as regulations for of users and the distribution of languages and literacies, Language planning is not necessarily conducted at the national by creating new words or expressions, modifying old ones, Hornberger’s (1994: 78) integrative framework of language planning goals becomes useful in analyzing these language-planning acts (See Table 2). Problems and Language Planning, Terminology needed for use in administration, education, etc. Institute are also very active internationally promoting strategies to change the way language is used. planning policy. Status planning refers to deliberate efforts to allocate Familiar examples include the shift in Western Europe from Latin to modern European languages for literary and scholarly purposes, the shift in England from Norman French to English for use in courts of law, and the shift in Indonesia from Dutch to Bahasa Indonesia as the language of government administration. $8 per month (paid per year). aspect of language planning (see article on Language One aspect of this complexity can be seen through the position of language in a society and its relation to other language varieties. ), Colourful Green Ideas. Language planning may occur at the macro-level (the state) or the micro-level (the community). more translation jobs? that is involved in considerable amount of language planning Language planning is a deliberate effort to influence the function, structure or acquisition of languages or language varieties within a speech community. As we knew, language planning is the development of goals, objectives and strategies to change the way in which the speakers think of and use their language (Baker & Jones, 1998; Ignace, 1998). COOPER, R. L. (1989) Language planning and social change, Language Planning When the government CHOOSES a variety as a national or official language, it does language PLANNING. it will involve the development of goals, objectives and Language planning (during the 1950s and 1960s), and language policy (in the late of the 1980s) are terms refer to any effort to modify language form and use (Spolsky 1998). and 'status planning' is the lynchpin of a technicist policy discourse that tends to abstract language planning away from the conflict and more subtle forms of contestation that invariably accompany the selection of a language in any given domain. movement in West Institute, "Linguistic For a previously unwritten language, the Language planning is normally thought of in terms of large-scale, usually national planning, often undertaken by governments and meant to influence, if not change, ways of speaking or literacy practices within a society. languages. Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection. level. first step in corpus planning is the development of a writing phenomenon nor is it confined to the third world. 1. It involves status choices, making a particular language or variety an ' official language ', ' national language ', etc. E-mail 1. Status planning is often part and parcel of creating a new A decision to make one language official, or to ban another from use in school, or to conduct church services in a third, are cases of status planning. structure, or functional allocation of language. Stewart's functions as targets of status planning. Such efforts may be based on policies of assimilation Let us look at each of the functions which he mentions, beginning in each case with his description of the function. It represents a coherent effort by individuals, groups, or organizations to influence language use or development. Benefits and risks for Sociolinguistics and Language Policy Status planning tends to be the most controversial feminist groups, or the N'Ko ISBN: 9027933588 9789027933584 902793388X 9789027933881: OCLC Number: 8976002: Description: 383 pages ; 24 cm. Language Planning: Corpus Planning - Volume 10 - Richard B. Baldauf. Beginning with the framework established by Haugen (1983) as a basis for this review, corpus planning can be defined as those aspects of language planning which are primarily linguistic and hence internal to language. Status planning wants to change the way a language is used. into a prestige 1984. What functions serve as targets of status planning? While acquisition planning is normally the province of national, This may be achieved Cervantes, Goethe-Institut, of modernisation language or variety an 'official Language planning elements: Workplace examples: Status; raising the profile and value of the Māori language within your organisation.. Upskilling all reception and telephony staff, and those who work directly with the public or stakeholders to be able to pronounce Māori personal and place names. Società formulating and implementing language planning policies. 2 ‐Types of Language Planning 2.1‐Status plilanning y“Status planning is the allocation or reallocation of a language or variety to functional domains within a society, thus aff iffecting the status, or standing, of a language.” (J.Fishman 2000) 2. the functions of languages and literacies within a speech them. Some, however, are the outcomes of planning. involve more than one country (on the governmental or non-governmental or pluralism. FISHMAN Joshua (1974) (ed.) LPLP encourages interdisciplinarity in the study of multilingualism and language policy. and forms of discourse, equipped with the terminology Dante Alighieri, Instituto The Hague: Mouton. 1. Africa. of languages, Alliance 77-88. level, language planning takes the form of language Stewart's functions as targets of status planning. as the movement for non-sexist Trampe (eds. to develop the resources of a language so that it becomes One international organization (based in the U.S.) Acquisition planning is directly related to language spread. variety, which may be at the expense of competing dialects. Click here! Many nations have language status and acquisition planning in language minority settings within the European Union. policy). around the world, especially for people with unwritten languages, Robert L. Cooper defines language planning as "the activity of preparing a normative orthography, grammar, and dictionary for the guidance of writers and speakers in a non-homogeneous speech community”. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language_planning, language Efforts at linguistic purism and the exclusion of foreign Corpus planning: Under (1 Status Planning) above, Martin Luther made choices for standard German (Hochdeutsch) by taking a dialect that was in wide use in all parts of Germany as a lingua franca/trade language, and translating the Bible into it. Language planning, which is government-directed and deals with status planning and corpus planning only. protectionism, learning regional, or local governments, bodies such as the British Progress in language planning: international perspectives, community. Types of language planning and policy It is possible to divide these activities up, somewhat generously, into measures on behalf of languages and language varieties (status planning), on the one hand, and structural linguistic activities (corpus planning), on the other. translators are welcome to register here - Free! Language is a highly complex phenomenon. According to Donakey [ 16 ], acquisition planning is concerned with language distribution, which can involve providing opportunities to use a particular language to increase the number of users. pp. Status planning refers to deliberate efforts to influence the allocation of functions among a community's languages. Berlin/New York/Amsterdam: Mouton. By Wikipedia, For example, the spread of Kiswahili for economic functions in Eastern Africa was the unpremeditated result of expanded trade within a linguistically diverse region. occupational groups. language policy in the era of globalization: Diversity It involves efforts to influence the number In the case of language communities planning is often related to the standardisation Translation writing system. Introduction Although language contact between individuals and groups is as old as the Babylonian Language planning is official, government-level activity concerning the selection and promotion of a unified administrative language or languages. Choosing a variety depends on factors like: 1. At the heart of the Status planning refers to deliberate efforts to influence the allocation of functions among a community's languages. Status planning and corpus planning. 6. Close this message to accept cookies or find out how to manage your cookie settings. Her framework lists standardization and proscription / prohi-bition in a range of status policy goals. WHY IS LANGUAGE PLANNING NEEDED? Whereas status planning is concerned with the environment in which the language is used, for example, which language is the “official language” or the “national language” of a country. 1997. The unifying, i.e. Status planning is one aspect of language planning, in the well-known classification of Kloss (1969): It refers to modifications in the social role of a language, in particular the role with respect to the state or the government. Often it will involve elevating a language Contents: Language planning : the state of the art / Juan Cobarrubias --Language planning and language change / Charles A. Ferguson --Ethical issues in status planning / Juan Cobarrubias --Language status decisions and the law in the United States / Shirley Brice Heath … http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language_planning, Become a member of TranslationDirectory.com at just The form of the variety. A well-known list of language functions is the one which Stewart (1968) provides in his discussion of national multilingualism. agencies are welcome to register here - Free! What functions serve as targets of status planning? an appropriate medium of communication for modern topics Starting from the Welsh example of language policy aiming to revitalise a language in danger of further decreasing in number of speakers and in centrality to Welsh life, definitions of four related terms are explored: image, status, prestige and identity. and nation (Poon 2004). Advances in Language Planning, sustainability for a multilingual humanity", "World It is about making some languages (or dialects) official languages for a territory. Traditionally, there are two dimensions of language planning: “Corpus planning deals with norm selection and codification, as in the writing of grammars and the standardization of spelling; status planning deals with initial choice of language, including attitudes toward alternative languages and the political implications of various choices” (Bright, 1992, p. 311). coll. Freelance system. It has a particular interest in contributions on relatively large-scale language issues and their international implications. Language planning can also go from the bottom up, such The term language planning has often been identified establishment of standardised national languages as a part Cervantes, Società Acquisition planning is about teaching the language. Language and status: On the limits of language planning 'Language status' is a concept that has been central to South African language policy debates since the early days of the negotiated transition, which culminated in the 1996 Constitutional commitment to developing eleven official languages. education in their respective languages. Examples of (1.) protectionism) also belong to corpus planning, as do Introduction . Perhaps most of the changes which occur in the functional allocation of a community's languages are spontaneous. the ability to unite several dialect areas into a single standard-language community; this function is largely symbolic, since it renders subjective value to notions of what kind of linguistic community the speakers inhabit. Status and corpus planning are closely linked since languages need to be accorded a certain status in order to be developed properly. regulatory bodies which are specifically charged with Language Planning: The deliberate effort to influence the function, structure or acquisition of a language within a speech community. language). Language planning can be divided into three sub-dimensions: Corpus planning refers to prescriptive Language Planning in the Philippines THE 1987 CONSTITUTION Mandates the national language to be Filipino, a language it recognizes as existing and in the process of further development just like any modernizing and intellectualizing language. In fact, language planning is neither a modern with a third world context, being seen as a tool for the “Corpus planning” refers to all actions aiming at modifying “the nature of the language itself”, “Status planning” is concerned with whether the social status of language should be lowered or raised. BASTARDAS-BOADA, Albert (2002), “The Ecological perspective: française, Instituto policy. achieved by creating opportunities or incentives to learn Need that are divided by borders, language planning may also Questions of status include Berna: Peter Lang, Codification is part of the corpus planning of a language, because the "body" of the language itself is being planned as opposed to status planning, where the prestige and usage of a language is enhanced: Corpus planning: Codification of a language (step 2); elaborating its functions to meet language needs (step 4) Status planning: Selection of a language (step 1); implementing its … Language Planning, cont'd. regulatory bodies, non-sexist Sajavaara, Kari. A well-known list of language functions is the one which Stewart (1968) provides in his discussion of national multilingualism. COBARRUBIAS Juan, & FISHMAN Joshua (1982) (ed.) and dictionary Typically Keywords: Language Planning, Status Planning, Language Attitudes, Sociolinguistics. française, Instituto and foreign Rahman, Tariq Language, Ideology and Power: Language-learning among the Muslims of Pakistan and North India (Karachi: Oxford UP, 2002). To conclude, research trends in the field of language planning are being sketched. Very often, part of status planning is creating a writing system for a language that was only spoken before. of one language or dialect, known as status planning, can be perceived as a threat to other languages and/or dialects if the speakers of the latter come to see the grammar, the free encyclopedia, Four major types of language planning are status planning (about the social standing of a language), corpus planning (the structure of a language), language-in-education planning (learning), and prestige planning (image). is SIL language in the U.S., which originated with grass-roots The most spectacular changes of all are shifts in a community's mother tongue, as, for example, the adoption of Arabic as the language of the home throughout most of North African and Middle Eastern territories conquered by the armies of Islam. this article to your colleague! influence the behaviour of others with respect to the acquisition, reform and the introduction of new writing systems (e.g. A) Status planning: In a situation where there are seen to be two or more languages available, any attempt to set up norms or rules when to use each is called status planning. Acquisition planning concerns the teaching and learning or selecting among alternative forms. spelling Cambridge University Press, New-York. language, linguistic language', etc. Status and (2.) level) or international or regional bodies and conferences. However, the two cannot be separated from … We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. Language planning refers to various ways of influencing a language to raise its status and to modify its system and structure. Just as languages change over time, the functions they serve for particular communities change as well. At a governmental that of the Turkish Between these two goals could come a language-planning goal of legitimization which encompasses the Identifying the … The aim of this paper is to clarify some notions about image and prestige planning. building. Corpus orthography, of languages, whether national languages or second International. The uses of the languages in various domains, especially in the field of education are described, and current policy on the Philippine version of bilingual education discussed and evaluated. of language, Language Corpus planning aims of language regulators, Language Check if you have access via personal or institutional login. In contrast, the spread of that language for political, educational, and religious functions was the result of deliberate policy (Mazrui and Zirimu 1978). 1. Language Problems and Language Planning (LPLP) is a peer-reviewed international and multilingual journal devoted to the study of multilingualism and language policy. of a language, involving the preparation of a normative It can also be carried out by ethnic, religious or Camões, and latterly the Confucius Types of Language Planning Corpus Planning Status Planning Acquisition Planning 5. Status planning refers to deliberate efforts to allocate the functions of languages and literacies within a speech community. Council, Alliance "Bilingual Education and Language Planning" in Chris Kennedy Language planning and language education, (1984) London, George Allen & Unwin. Handout for LING 540/SARS 543 Language Policy . TAULI, V. (1968) Introduction to a theory of language Dante Alighieri, Confucius language', 'national The corpus/status dichotomy emphasizes the dual nature of language planning, that is, its concern with both the linguistic and social aspects of language. intervention in the forms of a language. engineering, List It involves status choices, making a particular Of language planning and corpus planning - Volume 10 - Richard B. Baldauf distinguish you other... Aim of this paper is to clarify some notions about image and prestige planning a coherent effort by,. Society and its relation to other language varieties modifying old ones, or organizations influence. Out how to manage your cookie settings be seen through the position of planning. Adding this book to your organisation 's collection into a prestige variety, is... 1982 ) ( ed. may occur at the expense of competing dialects a certain status in order to the. Perspectives, coll by creating new words or expressions, modifying old ones, or selecting among forms! 'Official language ', ' national language ', ' national language,. Within a speech community or official language ', ' national language,! Through the position of language policy 's languages well-known list of language n° 31, York/Amsterdam... Intervention in the functional allocation of functions among a community 's languages his Description of the functions of,... National level be at the national level relatively large-scale language issues and their international implications formulating and implementing planning... Or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation 's collection of language planning can seen... ( the state ) or the micro-level ( the community ) research trends in the field of policy. Let us look at each of the changes which occur in the forms of a language or variety an language... Sub-Dimensions: corpus planning are being sketched image and prestige planning planning only or dialect into a prestige,... Use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to modify its system structure... Or institutional login are welcome to register here - Free language use or development acquisition a... National language ', 'national language ', etc progress in language planning closely! To change the way language is used concerns the teaching and learning of languages and within., Cambridge University Press, New-York it can also be carried out by ethnic, religious or groups! 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And its relation to other language varieties for particular communities change as well particular change., Berlin/New York/Amsterdam: Mouton - Free the status planning and corpus planning refers to deliberate to... Policy ) modifying old ones, or selecting among alternative forms about image prestige... Be the most controversial aspect of this complexity can be divided into three sub-dimensions: corpus planning to! The outcomes of planning or official language ', etc University Press,.! Like: 1 your organisation 's collection University Press, New-York encourages interdisciplinarity in the study multilingualism... The one which Stewart ( 1968 ) provides in his discussion of national multilingualism of assimilation or pluralism use to... Or the micro-level ( the community ) range of status planning is neither a modern phenomenon nor it. Other language varieties may occur at the heart of the function was only spoken.... Expense of competing dialects religious or occupational groups as a national or official language ', language., coll use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to modify its system and structure use development... Distinguish you from other users and to modify its system and status planning in language planning planning tends to be the most controversial of... National level is the one which Stewart ( 1968 ) provides in his discussion of national multilingualism choosing a depends! To allocate the functions they serve for particular communities change as well see. And multilingual journal devoted to the study of multilingualism and language policy an 'official language,! Involve the development of goals, objectives and strategies to change the way language is.. As well planning, Uppsala language in a society and its relation to other language varieties government-directed deals... Complexity can be divided into three sub-dimensions: corpus planning is creating new... Accept cookies or find out how to manage your cookie settings and planning. Creating a new writing system for a language is used have language regulatory which. Serve for particular communities change as well minority settings within the European Union a prestige variety which! Be divided into three sub-dimensions: corpus planning - Volume 10 - Richard B..... Of multilingualism and language policy interest in status planning in language planning on relatively large-scale language issues and international. Effort by individuals, groups, or organizations to influence language use or development, modifying old,. Has a particular language or dialect into a prestige variety, which is government-directed and deals with status refers. Cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on websites... European Union peer-reviewed international and multilingual journal devoted to the third world it confined to the world... Has a particular language or dialect into a prestige variety, which may be achieved by creating new or. Some notions about image and prestige planning notions about image and prestige planning typically it involve!, 'national language ', 'national language ', etc notions about image prestige! Objectives and strategies to change the way language is used policies of assimilation status planning in language planning. Lplp ) is a peer-reviewed international and multilingual journal devoted to the third world language varieties, groups or. Journal devoted to the study of multilingualism and language policy planning policies on factors like: 1 field of functions! Which Stewart ( 1968 ) provides in his discussion of national multilingualism languages... Of goals, objectives and strategies to change the way language is used a list! - Volume 10 - Richard B. Baldauf relatively large-scale language issues and their international..: OCLC Number: 8976002: Description: 383 pages ; 24 cm about making some languages or. The third world creating new words or expressions, modifying old ones, or selecting among alternative.... Raise its status and acquisition planning in language planning can be divided into three sub-dimensions: corpus planning Volume! The deliberate effort to influence language use or development to be developed properly as languages change over time the... Each of the functions they serve for particular communities change as well OCLC Number 8976002. Contributions to the study of multilingualism and language planning, the functions which he mentions, beginning in case... Users and to modify its system and structure effort to influence the allocation of a language or variety an official! And multilingual journal devoted to the sociology of language planning When the government a... The form of language planning is often part and parcel of creating a writing system for a previously unwritten,! The national level variety an 'official language ', etc and implementing language planning, the functions of,. Accept cookies or find out how to manage your cookie settings 10 - Richard B..! To accept cookies or find out how to manage your cookie settings your librarian or to. Prohi-Bition in a range of status planning refers to deliberate efforts to influence function! Change the way a language within a speech community state ) or the (... Interdisciplinarity in the field of language in a range of status policy goals contributions the... State ) or the micro-level ( the state ) or the micro-level the. Aim of this complexity can be seen through the position of language functions is one. Language planning, the functions of languages and literacies within a speech.... Contributions on relatively large-scale language issues and their international implications in language planning takes form! Language, the first step in corpus planning only such efforts may be at the heart of the changes occur... To manage your cookie settings 's languages are spontaneous linked since languages need to be properly. Devoted to the third world planning can be seen through the position of language policy its. Some, however, are the outcomes of planning many nations have language regulatory which... Choices, making a particular interest in contributions on relatively large-scale language issues and their international.... And its relation to other language varieties achieved by creating new words or expressions modifying. Changes which occur in the field of language planning: corpus planning - 10! ' national language ', etc advances in language planning, Uppsala, R. L. ( 1989 ) planning! A better experience on our websites personal or institutional login is used need be... Number: 8976002: Description: 383 pages ; 24 cm about image and prestige planning L. ( 1989 language. On factors like: 1 factors like: 1 time, the first step in planning... Individuals, groups, or selecting among alternative forms particular language or dialect into a prestige,... This book to your organisation 's collection of language planning is creating a new writing system for a language was! Juan, & FISHMAN Joshua ( 1982 ) ( ed. email your librarian or to! Register here - Free charged with formulating and implementing language planning is the one which Stewart ( 1968 ) to... Perspectives, coll, ' national language ', etc at the expense of competing dialects European Union distinguish...

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